Julie Grenoble and Tracy Parido

I. Policy Statement


In order to ensure that all materials located in the electronic catalog are consistent in format and in order to provide Anytown High School Library patrons with the best access to the online catalog, all records are to contain level 2 descriptions. Level 2 descriptions include eight areas of description, which are mandated by ISBD. These areas are as follows:

Area 1: Title and statement(s) of responsibility
Area 2: Edition statement
Area 3: Material specific details
Area 4: Publication/distribution information
Area 5: Physical description
Area 6: Series statement
Area 7: Notes
Area 8: Standard numbers and terms of availability

Such level of detail allows patrons to differentiate among different editions of the same title and different works with similar titles. It also enables searchers to find materials with desired characteristics (Weihs 14). In order to complete these descriptive areas, Anytown High School librarians use CIP records as a starting point and follow AACR2r rules. Eventually, Anytown High School librarians will transition from ISBD to FRBR and from AACR2r to RDA.

II. Procedures - Eight Areas of Description


  • Specific cataloging rules for different types of materials can be found in Chapters 2-13 of AACR2r. See “Organization of AACR2” (attached as resource) to determine which chapter deals with resources needing cataloged.

a. Title and Statement of Responsibility

  • Title and statement of responsibility should be added in MARC field 245.
  • Title and statement of responsibility should be transcribed as it appears on the title page (in the case of books) or title frames/screens (in the case of DVDs and other electronic resources). For other types of materials, see “Prescribed Sources for Cataloging Information” (attached as resource).
  • Title field should follow capitalization rules found in Appendix A of AACR2r.
  • A general material designation should be added in subfield h for videos, sound recordings, three-dimensional items, kits and computer software. For correct GMD terms, see “Correct Terms for GMD and SMD” (attached as resource).
  • Use AACR2r Chapter 1.1 for general rules dealing with title and statement of responsibility.
    • An example of title and statement of responsibility, with subfields, is as follows
      • 245 _a Gasland _h [videorecording] : _b can you light your water on fire? _c International WOW Company and HBO Documentary Films ; written and directed by Josh Fox ; produced by Trish Adlesic, Josh Fox and Molly Gandour.

b. Edition Statement

  • Edition information should be added in MARC field 250.
  • Create separate bibliographic records for each edition of a material.
  • Edition information should be obtained from the CIP or title page (in the case of books) or title frames/physical carrier and label (in the case of DVDs and other electronic resources). For other types of materials, see “Prescribed Sources for Cataloging Information” (attached as resource).
  • Use proper abbreviations from Appendix B of AACR2r and proper numbers from Appendix C of AACR2r. For example, use “ed.” for edition, “rev.” for revised, and “2nd” for second.
  • Use AACR2r Chapter 1.2 for general rules dealing with edition.
    • An example of edition information, with subfields, is as follows:
      • 250 _a 4th ed. _b with illustrations redrawn and colored.

c. Material Specific Details

  • Material specific details will only be added for maps, sheet music, computer files and serials. For maps, the scale and projection are given in this area. The musical presentation for sheet music is given in this area, as well as the numbering of the first volume of serials. For computer files, the type of file and information relating to the number and size of files is provided in this area.
  • For examples of how this area is used for maps, sheet music, computer files and serials, refer to “Area 3 -- Material Specific Details" (attached as resource).

d. Publication/Distribution Information

  • Publication and distribution information should be added in MARC field 260.
  • Publication and distribution information should be obtained from the CIP or title page (in the case of books) or title frames/physical carrier and label (in the case of DVDs and other electronic resources). For other types of materials, see “Prescribed Sources for Cataloging Information” (attached as resource).
  • Use proper abbreviations from Appendix B of AACR2r for place of publication. Correct abbreviations can also be found in attached resource, “Abbreviations for Place of Publication in AACR2 and as Postal Codes.”
  • Use AACR2r Chapter 1.4 for general rules dealing with publication and distribution.
    • An example of publication and distribution information, with subfields, is as follows:
      • 260 _a Somerville, Mass. : _b Candlewick Press, _c 2012.

e. Physical Description

  • Physical Description should be added in MARC field 300
  • The physical description area varies according to format (print, video, electronic)
  • Use AACR2 Chapter 1.5 for the physical description area
    • An example of physical description with subfields is as follows:
      • 300 _a 149p. : _b ill. _c 28 cm

f. Series Statement

  • Series should be added in MARC field 490 + 8xx
  • If Series found in record is in MARC field 440 delete and edit as above
  • Books or videos may be part of a series
  • Use AACR2 Chapter 1.6 for the series area
    • An example of series statement with subfields is as follows:
      • 490 _a Sweet Valley High; _v 6

g. Notes (formal and informal)

  • Notes should be added in MARC field 5xx
  • Order of notes is prescribed by AACR2r—most important note comes first
  • Include bibliographical references (504) and index; the bibliography note may only be combined with the index note, if applicable
  • Include appendices and glossary; additional sections are listed in a separate note, not in the summary note
  • Include the following in the indicated MARC field area: Contents (505) , Summary (520), Audience (521), Reading Program (526), Awards (586), Local note (590)
  • Use AACR2 Chapter 1.7 for the notes area
    • an example of notes with the appropriate subfields is as follows:
      • 500 _a Includes index.
      • 504 _a Includes bibliographic references and index.
      • 505 _a Lucy Johnson -- Caroline Kennedy -- Maragret Truman -- Amy Carter
      • 520 _a Describes the life and customs of the Inuit people, also known as Eskimo, answering many questions about them.
      • 521 _a 012-up. OR _a MPAA rating : PG OR _a700 _bLexile.
      • 526 _a Poetry Outloud Selection list.
      • 586 _a Caldecott Medal, 1999
      • 590 _a Signed by author. OR _a Title page missing.


h. Standard Numbers and Terms of Availability

  • Standard Numbers should be added in MARC field (020-ISBN)
  • Use AACR2 Chapter 1.8 for standard numbers and availability
    • an example of standard numbers with the appropriate subfield is as follows:
      • ISBN _a0599582475: _c$12.95

III. References and Tools




























[[file:General Material:Specific Material Designation Chart.doc]]



IV. Annotated Bibliography


“Abbreviations for Place of Publication in AACR2 and as Postal Codes.” Internet Library for Librarians. InfoWorks Technology, 1994-2012. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <http://www.itcompany.com/inforetriever/cat_260a.htm>. This site provides the cataloger with proper AACR2 abbreviations for place of publication.

Adamich, Tom. “RDA (Resource Description and Access): The New Way to Say, ‘AACR2.’” Knowledge Quest 36.4 (2008): 64-69. Wilson OmniFile Full Text Mega Edition. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. The RDA was scheduled to be introduced in 2008 and would present a major shift in the school library community. Changes in AACR2 were deemed necessary as traditional cataloging rules were not keeping pace with electronic formats of sources which began in 1997. AACR2 rules are too specific to deal with portable document formats, such as PDF or Microsoft Word Files. RDA is directly aligned with FRBR and FRAR. School librarians who routinely modify or enhance their records already will not be adversely affected by RDA changes in cataloging.

Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. 2nd ed., 2002 revision ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 2005. Print. A compilation of rules governing the description of library materials and the assignment of access points for these materials, AACR2r provides clearly defined policies and examples for cataloguing various types of materials, including books, sound recordings, electronic resources, cartographic materials, motion pictures, and more. It includes proper punctuation, capitalization, abbreviations, and numbering. It also indicates the source from which the cataloger should take his/her information when conflicts exist. Formerly the ultimate authority for cataloging resources, AACR2r will soon be replaced by RDA cataloguing standards.

Barber, Diane, and T Michael Womack. “CIP: E-Book Initiative.” 2011. File last modified on 26 June 2011. Power Point file. This Power Point presentation was presented at the ALA 2011 summer conference. It explains why it important to provide CIP information for e-books and what that data information will look like. Various MARC field information is discussed to explain how data will be entered into a computer system.

Calhoun, Karen, and Betty Landesman. “WorldCat Quality.” OCLC: Global Council . American Library Association, 7 Jan. 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. Specifically, two graphic organizers contained in this presentation expertly illustrate the precise information necessary to meet minimal Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (slide 16 and slide 32). These slides demonstrate how WorldCat will share data while adhering to FRBR standards.

“Cataloging: Descriptive Cataloging.” Internet Library for Librarians. InfoWorks Technology, 1994-2012. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <http://www.itcompany.com/inforetriever/cat_desc.htm>. This website provides links to a variety of helpful online cataloging resources. Resources include information on access points, descriptive cataloging for monographs, ending punctuation for MARC fields, sheet music cataloging, and much more.

“Cataloging in Publication Program.” CIP Home. Library of Congress, 2012. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/publish/cip/>. This website offers various links to information about the Cataloging in Publication program offered by the Library of Congress. Materials can be assigned cataloging information in advance of print publication. The CIP data includes: bibliographic record and an abbreviated version of the MARC record. Furthermore, the site explains in detail the process involved in getting this information as well as what materials are eligible. At the technical information link, there is a connection to the Electronic CIP manual. Finally, a comprehensive FAQ link is included for further information.


"Area 3: Material (or Type of Publication) Specific Details." Chart. Standard Cataloging for School and Public Libraries. By Sheila Intner and Jean Weihs. 4th ed. ed. Englewood: Libraries Unlimited, 2007. 49-53. Print. Excerpted from Intner and Weihs's book, these pages provide an overview and examples of how Area 3 is used in descriptive cataloging.

“CIP’s Guide to Writing a Summary.” File last modified on 2012. Microsoft Word file. This source identified a basic definition for writing a summary. It addresses the characteristics of a good summary including such items as: focus, content, language, style and grammar. Acceptable and unacceptable sample summaries are included as well.

“Correct Terms for GMD and SMD.” Chart. Candy Blessing. 2 Feb. 2002. Cataloging Nonbook Materials with AACR2R and MARC: A Guide for the School Library Media Specialist. By Marilyn McCroskey. Chicago: American Assocation of School Librarians, 1999. N. pag. Microsoft Word file. This chart provides the correct AACR2 terms for general material designation and specific material designation for the following materials: videorecordings, interactive videos, sound recordings, three-dimensional items, kits and computer software. In addition, the chart provides proper MARC fields and subfields for these designations, as well as the AACR chapter in which these materials can be found.

Debus-Lopez, Karl, David Williamson, and Caroline Saccucci. “CIP and ONIX: The Future of Bibliographic Control.” Library of Congress. Washington, DC. 14 Sept. 2010. Library of Congress. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/publish/cip/topics/CIPandONIX.html>. The Catalog-in-Publication program history is shared. This program is in its fortieth year of existence, and they are still trying to improve upon the information provided. The speaker focuses mainly on the the enhancement of publisher supplied data as well as subject terminology.

Dodds, Joyce M. “AACR2 : Descriptive Cataloguing for Monographs.” Queen’s University Library. Queen’s University, 5 Jan. 2005. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <http://library.queensu.ca/techserv/cat/Sect02/c02a2.html>. This website summarizes key points from AACR2. It focuses on monographs (books) and provides AACR2 rules, prescribed sources of information, and examples for common MARC tags used by monographs. Very simplified and easy to understand, this website is a great resource for any cataloger looking to describe a monograph.

Dragon, Patricia, Jennifer Joyner, and Nara Newcomer. “RDA (Resource Description & Access).” SlideShare. SlideShare, 24 May 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <http://www.slideshare.net/jenniferjoyner/rda-resource-description-access>. This slide presentation was presented at J.Y.Joyner Library at East Carolina University in May 2011. The presenters hoped to shed some light on changes in the cataloging environment while reflecting on the historical and theoretical background of cataloging. The acronym RDA was examined as well as the timeline for possible implementation. “RDA will modernize the library catalog” and could possibly kill MARC records. It is important to move forward into the 21st Century to connect our automated computer systems with the most appropriate and updated records in order to connect patrons to the best possible sources.

Franklin, Suzanne D. “Prescribed Sources for Cataloging Information in Order of Preference.” 27 May 2004. PDF file. This file provides catalogers with a guide for cataloging information sources. It tells catalogers where to look for necessary information for various areas of description, including title, edition, publication, physical description, series, notes and standard numbers. In addition, it ranks these sources of information in order of preference. The file also provides MARC fields for each of the areas of description.

Fritz, Deborah A, and Lynnette Fields. “Cataloging Correctly (Someday) Using RDA.” Cataloging Correctly for Kids: An Introduction to the Tools. Ed. Sheila S Inter, Joanna F Fountain, and Jean R Weihs. 5th ed. USA: American Library Association, 2011. 73-103. Google Books. Web. 25 Apr. 2012.
This chapter attempts to clarify the necessity for revising cataloging rules in a more simplistic fashion. The authors discuss the major similarities and differences between the older version, AACR2 and the newer variety, RDA. While AACR2 establishes general rules for static sources, especially in print, RDA seeks to simplify rules as well as incorporate requirements for electronic sources. RDA will simplify and improve the organization of bibliographic records. FRBR will attempt to establish relationships between various related sources. Ultimately, the overall cataloging goal would be to connect automated systems with necessary cataloging improvements that are in desperate need of catching up with the electronic age that is the 21st Century.

Hart, Amy. “FRBR and School Libraries.” Library Media Connection 25.1 (2006): 28, 30-1. Print. In this journal article, Hart describes the important relationship between bibliographic records and automated catalogs. FRBR or Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records is a model that bridges this connection. “Furber” works to establish four levels of bibliographic information: works, expressions, manifestations, and items. Ultimately, FRBR makes a logical connection between bibliography information and the information users need to determine the best possible source match to suit their specific pursuits.

Kettner, Megan. “Critical Review.” Rev. of RDA Toolkit. Theological Library 4.1 (2011): 105-106. WilsonWeb. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. The RDA Toolkit is for users who are unfamiliar or intimidated by the RDA document. This toolkit is designed to provide support for catalogers who are already familiar with AACR2 and provides a transition from the old to the new.

“Key to the Parts of the CIP.” File last modified on 2012. Microsoft Word file. A detailed key which identifies and explains the 14 areas used to identify Cataloging-in-Publication data. This information comes directly from the Library of Congress and provides a simple and easy to follow number scheme along with a sample from an actual print source.

Koren, Johan. “Overview of Cataloging: First Element: Descriptive Cataloging (Use of AACR2R).” Murray State University. SlideShare, 31 Jan. 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <http://www.slideshare.net/joh5700/descriptive-cataloging-2003-version>. This is a comprehensive slide show which provides definitions and examples for the eight areas of description for effectively cataloging library materials. While it was created in 2003, there have been several updates including the last one in 2010. This slide show was detailed and easy to follow. The toggling between actual sources and general template were very desirable especially for a beginning cataloger.

Miller, Liz. “Resource Description and Access (RDA): An Introduction for Reference Librarians.” Reference & User Services Quarterly: 216-222. Print. This article attempts to introduce the basic features of a new cataloging code, RDA or Resource Description and Access which has been created to replace AACR2. AACR2 originally made it easier for libraries to share records; however, the last revision which took place in 1978 has not kept pace with electronic sources which exploded onto the scene in the 1990’s. FRBR is the model used for bibliographic information and would be considered a crucial component of the RDA framework as well. Some important features of RDA include clarifying the General Material Designation for non-print sources; therefore, the first area of description would become much clearer for the cataloger as well as the patron to locate. RDA also streamlines “the rule of three” and eliminates listing more than one author and limits author to one. RDA hopes to enhance the searching capabilities for patrons. Initially, RDA will be incorporated into large libraries.

Nordmark, Bobbi. “Organization of AACR2.” 28 Jan. 2003. File last modified on Sept. 2005. Microsoft Word file. This file describes the organization of the 2004 edition of AACR2. It lists the topics and materials that are covered in Chapters 1-13 of AACR. It also gives the areas of description, or the areas each rule number deals with in each chapter. For example, rule number 1 in each chapter deals with title and statement of responsibility, while rule number 2 in each chapter deals with the edition statement.

Tillett, Barbara. “LC’s Digital Future & You: RDA Changes from AACR2 for Texts.” Library of Congress. Washington, DC. 12 Jan. 2010. YouTube. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QkBpC0ALwwo>. Barbara Tillett is the Chief of the Policy and Standards Division at the Library of Congress. She is also a member of the Joint Steering Committee for the Development of RDA. This video was created to help prepare US catalogers to test the new cataloging code of RDA. She gives a brief overview of the changes from AACR2 to RDA especially as these revisions affect the cataloging of text materials.

Weihs, Jean, and Sheila S. Intner. Beginning Cataloging. Santa Barbara: Libraries Unlimited, 2009. Print. In addition to other cataloging procedures, this resource provides a wealth of information on cataloging-in-publication and the process of descriptive cataloging. Offering explanations and examples, and including a variety of materialtypes, this book teaches the cataloger how to create a descriptive bibliographic record, starting with the CIP record.

Weinheimer, James. Cooperative Cataloging Rules. Google Sites, 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <http://sites.google.com/site/opencatalogingrules/Home>. This website was created as an alternative to RDA. It provides catalogers with a place to obtain updates for the current rules. The site includes updated rules for ISBD and AACR2, as well as rule interpretations by organizations such as the Library of Congress. The site also includes information on FRBR.

Wynne, Susan C. “RDA and AACR2: What’s the Difference.” Wyoming State Library Webinar. University of Wyoming. 11 Oct. 2011. YouTube. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QkBpC0ALwwo>. Wynne compares and contrasts the similarities and differences between AACR2 and RDA. She displays actual RDA records and illustrates the implementation plans for RDA in the US. Finally, she addresses the effects this new cataloging system will have not only on catalogers and librarians but also patrons.